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Charles T. Campbell Ophthalmic Microbiology Laboratory
Bibliography 1998 - 2020


Brothers KM, Stella NA, Shanks RMQ. Biologically active pigment and ShlA cytolysin of Serratia marcescens induce autophagy in a human ocular surface cell line. 2020 BMC Ophthalmol. 20(1):120. doi: 10.1186/s12886-020-01387-z. PMC7098141.

Callaghan JD, Stella NA, Lehner KM, Treat BR, Brothers1 KM, St. Leger AJ, and Shanks RM. Generation of Xylose-inducible promoter tools for Pseudomonas species and their use in implicating a role for the Type II secretion system protein XcpQ in inhibition of corneal epithelial wound closure. 2020. Appl Env Microbiol accepted

Lehner KM, Stella NA, Calvario RC, and Shanks RMQ. mCloverBlaster: a tool to make markerless deletions and fusions using lambda red and I-SceI in Gram-negative bacterial genomes. 2020. J. Microbial Methods Sep 12;178:106058. doi: 10.1016/j.mimet.2020.106058. PMID: 32031841.

Stella NA, Brothers KM, and Shanks RMQ. Differential susceptibility of airway and ocular surface cell lines to FlhDC-mediated virulence factors PhlA and ShlA from Serratia marcescens. 2020. J. Med Microbiol. Doi: 10.1099/jmm.0.001292.  PMID: 33300860.

Durrani A, Atta S, Bhat AK, Mammen A, Dhaliwal DK, Kowalski RP, Jhanji V. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococci aureus keratitis: Initial treatment, risk factors, clinical features, and treatment outcomes. Am J Ophthalmol (2020 accepted) .

Mo S, Durrani AF, Safiullah Z, Kowalski RP, Jhanji V. Proteus mirabilis Keratitis: Risk factors, clinical features, treatment outcomes, and microbiological characteristics. Cornea 2020;

Chilambi G, Nordstrom H, Evans D, Kowalski RP, Dhaliwal DK, Jhanji V, Shanks RMQ, Van Tyne D.  Genomic and phenotypic diversity of Enterococcus faecalis isolated from endophthalmitis. MSphere 2020;

Kamyar RM, Shatten JD, Dhaliwal DK, Rhee MK, Mammen A, Prakash G, Jhanji V, Kowalski RP. Washing to Dilute May be the Answer to Eliminate Fungus from Donor Corneal Tissue. Int J Eye Banking 2020 (submitted)

Mukhtar S, Atta S, Durrani A, Chandra S, Kowalski RP, Jhanji V.  Microbiological evaluation of Corneal and Contact lens cultures in contact lens-associated bacterial keratitis. Br J Ophthalmol (In Press)

Shatten JD, Kowalski RP, Dhaliwal DK, Kamyar RM, Jhanji V. Incidence of Fungal Infection in Positive Donor Rim Cultures after Corneal Transplantation. Ocular Immunology and Inflammation 2020.

Gonzalez LG, Dhaliwal DK, Kowalski RP. Efficacy of topical 0.01% hypochlorous acid in reducing bacterial flora on lid margins and conjunctival sac compared to topical 5% povidone-iodine. JSM Ophthalmol 2020;7(2):1074.

Romanowski EG, MS, Yates KA, Romanowski JE, Mammen A, Dhaliwal DK, Jhanji V, Shanks RMQ, Kowalski RP.The Use of Hypochlorous Acid to Disinfect Bacteria, Fungi and Virus from Contact Lenses and Cases. JSM Ophthalmol 2020;

Kowalski RP, Kamyar RM, Rhee MK, Mammen A, Dhaliwal DK, Eller Aw, Romanowski EG, Jhanji V. Comparison of 5% and 2.5% Povidone Iodine to 0.01% hypochlorous acid using corneoscleral tissue as a solid-phase medium. Ophthalmology Science (In Press)

Ross AG, Kowalski RP. The Threshold of ultraviolet light energy to eliminate acanthamoeba. EC Ophthalmol (In Press)

Galante AJ, Haghanifar S, Romanowski EG, Shanks RMQ, Leu PW. Superhemophobic and anti-virofouling coating for mechanically durable and wash-stable medical textiles. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2020;12(19):22120–22128. PMID: 32320200

Romanowski EG, Stella NA, Yates  KA, Romanowski JE, Dhaliwal DK, Shanks RMQ. Activation of the Rcs stress response system reduces inflammation and proliferation in Serratia marcescens mediated keratitis. Infect Immun. 2020 (Submitted).

Jhanji V, Kowalski RP. Fungal infection after keratoplasty and the role of antifungalsupplementation to preservation medium – A review. Br J Ophthalmol (In Press).
Romanowski EG, Romanowski JE, Shanks RMQ, Mammen A, Dhaliwal DK, Jhanji V, Kowalski RP. Topical vancomycin 5% is more efficacious than 2.5% and 1.25% for reducing viable MRSA in infectious keratitis. Cornea (In Press).

Romanowski EG, Lehner KM, Martin NC, Patel KR, Callaghan JD, Stella NA, Shanks RM. Thermoregulation of prodigiosin biosynthesis by Serratia marcescens controlled at the transcriptional level and requires HexS. Pol J Microbiol. 2019;68(1):43-50.

Brothers KM, Callaghan JD, Stella NA, Bachinsky JM, AlHigaylan M, Lehner KL, Franks, JM, Lathrop KL, Collins E, Schmitt DM, Horzempa J, and Shanks RMQ. Blowing epithelial cell bubbles with GumB: shlA-family pore-forming toxins induce blebbing and rapid cellular death in corneal epithelial cells. 2019. PLoS Pathogens 15(6):e1007825.
Klarlund JK, Callaghan JD, Stella NA, Kowalski RP, McNamara NA, Shanks RM. Use of collegen binding domains to deliver molecules to the cornea. J Ocul Pharmacol 2019;35(9):491-496.

Thareja T, Kowalski RP, Jhanji V, Kamyar R, Dhaliwal DK. MRSA keratitis and conjunctivitis: What does it mean practically? Current Ophthalmology Reports 2019;7(2):110-117.

Kowalski RP, Nayyar SV, Romanowski EG, Shanks RMQ, Mammen A, Dhaliwal DK, Jhanji V. The prevalence of bacteria, fungi, viruses, and acanthamoeba from 3004 cases of keratitis, endophthalmitis, and conjunctivitis. Eye & Contact Lense 2019 August.

Grosso A, Scarpa G, Romano M, Ceruti P, Joondeph B, Kowalski RP, Engelbert M, Giardini F, Di Perri G, Bandello F, Marchini G, Fioretto M, Garg S. Choosing Wisely: Antibiotic use in ophthalmic surgery. Retina Today, March 2019.

The Charles T. Campbell Ophthalmic Microbiology Laboratory, Dhaliwal DK, Jhanji, Kowalski RP, Mammen A, Romanowski EG, Shanks RMQ. Endophthalmitis after intravitreal triamcinolone-moxifloxacin. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2019;45(5):705-706.

LaCroce S, Wilson MN, Romanowski JE, Newman JD, Jhanji V, Shanks RMQ, Kowalski RP. Moraxella nonliquefaciens and M. osloensis are Important Moraxella Species that Cause Ocular Infections. Microorganisms 2019;7(6):163 DOI: 10.20944/
Verner A, Faroog A, Kowalski RP, Jhanji V. A case of Nocardia farcinica keratitis in a pediatric contact lens wearer. Eye and Contact Lens 2019 August 22.

Romanowski EG, Yates  KA, Shanks RMQ, Kowalski RP.  Benzalkonium chloride demonstrates concentration dependent antiviral activity against adenovirus in vitro. J Ocul Pharm Ther. 2019;35:311-314. DOI: 10.1089/jop.2018.0145

Tran D, Dhaliwal DK, Jhanji V, Kamyar R, Kowalski RP. Optisol supplemented with 0.255 µg/ml Amphotericin B does not eliminate yeast at 5O C. Cornea 2019;38:901-904.

Yates KA, Shanks RM, Kowalski RP, Romanowski EG. The In Vitro Evaluation of Povidone-Iodine against Multiple Ocular Adenoviral Types. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther  2019;35:132-136. DOI: 10.1089/jop.2018.0122

Jhanji V, Amarasekera S, Durrani A, Faith S, Kowalski RP. Clinical features of Streptococcus pyogenes keratitis: Case series. Contact Lens and Anterior Eye 2019;pii;s1367-0484.

Klocek MS, Dhaliwal DK, Mammen A, Kowalski RP. Time-kill comparison of povidone iodine to hypochlorous acid against endophthalmitis isolates of Staphylococci. Ophthalmol and Vis Sci; CTOVS-108. DOI:10,29011/CTOVS-108. 100008.

Mesiwala-Kothari N, Kowalski RP. The Storage Bioefficacy of Vancomycin, Amikacin, Ceftazidime at Various Time-Points and Temperatures: Antibiotics Used for Intravitreal Injections. EC Ophthalmol 9.11 (2018):740-743.

Jhanji V, Durrani A, Kowalski RP, Faith S, Yu M, Romanowski EG, Shanks RM, Dhaliwal DK. Moraxella keratitis: Analysis of risk factors, clinical characteristics, management and treatment outcomes. A J Ophthalmol 2019;197:17-22.

Romanowski JE, Romanowski EG, Yates KA, Kowalski RP (2018) The Successful Treatment of Experimental Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Keratitis with Topical Penicillin. Ophthalmol Res Rep: ORRT-128. DOI: 10.29011/ ORRT-128. 100028

Lee J, Bilonick R, Romanowski EG, Kowalski RP. Seasonal Variation in Human Adenovirus Conjunctivitis: A 34-Year Study. Ophthalmic Epidemiology 2018;25:451-456 http://DOI:10.1080/09286586.2018.15098096 
Kowalski RP, Romanowski EG, Yates KA, Romanowski JE, Grewal A. Is there a role for the topical penicillin treatment of Staphylococcus aureus keratitis based on elevated corneal concentrations?  J Clin Ophthalmolo Optom 2(1): 103.

Hooton JG, Yates KA, Romanowski EG, Kowalski RP. Virucidal activity of hand sanitizers against ocular isolates of adenovirus. Int J Ophthal Vision Res 2018;2(1):11-13.

Taubenslag KJ, Michaels MG, Troia A, Lee J, Lope LA, Sylvester CL, Pihlblad MS, Kowalski RP. Oculoglandular Tularemia: Microbiologic Findings and Safety Implications. JAMA Ophthalmol 2018; 136(11): 1297-1298.

Romanowski EG, Stella NA, Yates KA, Brothers KM, Kowalski RP, Shanks RMQ. In vitro evaluation of a hypochlorous acid hygienes solution on established biofilms. Eye & CL  2018; 44 suppl 2:S187-S191.

Brothers KM, Kowalski RP, Tian S, Kinchington PR, Shanks RMQ. Bacteria induce autophagy in a human ocular surface cell line.  Exp Eye Res. 2018; 168: 12-18.

Kowalski RP, Romanowski EG, Shanks RMQ, Mammen A, Dhaliwal DK.   Post-surgical cataract prophylaxis with intravitreal triamcinolone-moxifloxacin may not be optimal for preventing endophthalmitis. Eye & CL 2018;44:S338-S343.

Antic I, Brothers KM, Lai H, Powell E, Stolzer M, Miao X, Eutsey R, Cuevas R, Kowalski RP, Shanks RMQ, Durand D, Hiller NL. Gene acquisition by a distinct phyletic group within Streptococcus pneumoniae promotes adhesion to the ocular epithelium. MSphere 2017; 25.

Ismail AM, Cui T, Dommaraju K, Singh G, Dehghan S, Seto J, Shrivastava S, Fedorova NB, Gupta N, Stockwell TB, Madupu R, Heim A, Kajon AE, Romanowski EG, Kowalski RP, Malathi J, Therese KL, Madhavan HN, Zhang Q, Ferreyra LJ, Jones MS, Rajaiya J, Dyer DW, Chodosh J, Seto D. Genomic analysis of a large set of currently – and historically – important human adenovirus pathogens. Emerg Microbes & Infect. 2018;7:208..

Brothers K, Shanks RMQ , Hurlbert S , Kowalski RP , Tu E. Association between fungal contamination and eyebank-prepared endothelial keratoplasty tissue Temperture-dependent risk factors and antifungal supplementation of optisol-gentamicin and streptomycin. JAMA Ophthalmol 2017; 135;1184-1190. doi:10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2017.3797.

Kowalski RP, Karenchak LM, Dhaliwal DK, Mammen A. AmpliVue is A New Practical and Timely Test for the Detection of HSV from Ocular Specimens. Eye and Contact Lens 2018;44:S244-S248.

Kodati S, Eller AW, Kowalski RP. Are We Optimally Treating Bacterial Endophthalmitis? An in vitro Reassessment. Ophthalmology Retina 2017;1(3):206-209.

Shanks RM, Stella NA, Lahr RM, Aston MA, Brothers KM, Callaghan JD, Sigindere C, and Liu X.  Suppressor analysis of eepR mutant defects reveals coordinate regulation of secondary metabolites and serralysin biosynthesis by EepR and HexS.  Microbiology 2017 163:2:280-88. PMCID: PMC5775897.

Stella NA, Callaghan JD, Zhang L, Brothers KM, Kowalski RP, Huang JJ, Thibodeau PH, Shanks RM.  SlpE is a calcium-dependent cytotoxic metalloprotease associated with clinical isolates of Serratia marcescens. 2017 Research in Microbiology 168(6)567-574. PMID: 28366837.

Liu YY, Chandler C, Leung L, McElheny C, Mettus R, Shanks RM, Liu JH, Goodlett D, Ernst R, Doi Y.  Structural modification of lipopolysaccharide conferred by mcr-1 in gram-negative ESKAPE pathogens.  Accepted. 2017. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2017 61:6 in press PMCID: PMC5444183.

Ma D, Shanks, RM, Davis CM 3rd, Craft DW, Wood TK, Hamlin BR, Urish KL. Viable bacteria persist on antibiotic spacers following two-stage revision for periprosthetic joint infection. 2017. J Orthop Res. Accepted PMID: 28543707
Wang P, McElheny C, Mettus R, Shanks RM, Doi Y. Contribution of TetB efflux pump on minocycline susceptibility amon carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. 2017.  Antimicrob Agents Chemother 22;61(10). PMID:28739789

Ito R, Mustapha MM, Tomich AD, Callaghan JD, McElheny CL, Mettus RT, Shanks RM, Sluis-Cremer N, Doi Y. Widespread fosfomycin resistance in Gram-negative bacteria attributable to the chromosomal fosA gene.  mBio.  29;8(4) PMC5574708

Stella NA, Callaghan JD, Zhang L, Kowalski RP, Huang JJ, Thibodeau PH, Shanks RMQ. SlpE is a calcium-dependent cytotoxic metalloprotease associated with clinical isolates of Serratia marcescens. 2017 Research in Microbiology.

Romanowski EG, Kowalski TA, O’Connor KE, Yates KA, Mah FS, Shanks RMQ, Kowalski RP.The in vitro evaluation and the in vivo evaluation of RPX-978 (0.5% tigecycline) as an ocular antibiotic. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther 2016;32(2):119-126.

Lin L, Kim J, Chen H, Kowalski RP, Nizet V. Component analysis of multi-purpose contact lens solutions to enhance activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrobiol Agents Chemotherap 2016;60:4259-4263.

Mammen A, Romanowski EG, Fedorchak MV, Dhaliwal DK, Shanks RMQ, Kowalski RP.    Endophthalmitis Prophylaxis Using a Single Drop of Thermo-Responsive Controlled-Release Microspheres Loaded with Moxifloxacin in a Rabbit Model. Transl Vis Sci Technol 2016 Dec 1:5(6):12.

Romanowski EG, Stella NA, Brothers KM, Yates KA, Funderburgh ML, Funderburgh JL, Gupta S, Dharani S, Kadouri DE, Shanks RMQ. Predatory bacteria are nontoxic to the rabbit ocular surface. Sci Rep. 2016;6:30987.

Shanks RM, Stella NA, Brothers KM, and Polaski DM.  Exploitation of a “hockey-puck” phenotype to identify pilus and biofilm regulators in Serratia marcescens through genetic analysis. Can J. Microbiol. 2016 62:1:83-93. PMC4739789

Mukherjee S, Brothers KM, Shanks RM, Kadouri DE.  Visualizing Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus using a tdTomato fluorescent protein.  Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2016 82:6:1653-61. PMC4784026.

Hover T, Maya T, Ron S, Sandovsky H, Shadkchan Y, Kijner N, Mitiagin J, Fichtman B, Harel A, Shanks RM, Bruna R, García Véscovi E, and Osherov N. Analysis of mechanisms of bacterial (Serratia marcescens) attachment, migration and killing of fungal hyphae." Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2016 82:9:2585-94.  PMC4836416.

Olonisakin T, Li HH, Xiong Z, Kochman E.J.K., Yu MT, Qu Y, Hulver M, Kolls JK, St. Croix C, Doi Y, Nguyen MH, Shanks RM, Mallampalli RK, Kagan VE, Ray A, Silverstein RL, Ray P, Lee JS.  CD36 provides host protection against Klebsiella pneumoniae intrapulmonary infection by enhancing LPS responsiveness and macrophage phagocytosis. J Infectious Dis Manuscript 2016 214:12:1865-75. PMCID: PMC5142085.

Brothers KM, Stella NA, Hunt KM, Romanowski EG, Xinyu L, Klarlund JK, Kowalski RP, Shanks RM. Putting on the breaks: bacterial inhibition of epithelial wound healing. Scientific Reports. 2015; 14;5:14003 PMC4650533

Kowalski RP, Romanowski EG, Yates KA, Mah FS. An independent evaluation of a novel peptide mimetic, Brilacidin (PMX30063), for ocular anti-infective therapy. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther 2016;32(1):23-27.

Brothers KM, Stella NA, Romanowski EG, Kowalski RP, Shanks RM. EepR mediates secreted protein production, dessication survival, and proliferation in a corneal infection model. Infection and Immunity 2015;83(11):4373-4382.

Brothers KM, Stella NA, Hunt KM, Romanowski EG, Liu X, Klarlund JK, RMQ Shanks. Putting on the brakes: Bacterial impediment of wound healing. Sci Rep. 2015;5:14003.

Romanowski EG, Kowalski TA, O'Connor KE, Yates KA, Mah FS, Shanks RMQ, Kowalski RP. The in vitro evaluation of tigecycline and the in vivo evaluation of RPX-978 (0.5% tigecycline) as an ocular antibiotic. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther 2016 (in press).

Chang VS, Dhaliwal DK, Raju LV, Kowalski RP. Is antibiotic resistance a major problem in the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus keratitis? A 20-year review. Cornea 2015;34(6):698-703.

Kowalski RP, Karenchak LM, Raju LV, Ismail N. The Validation of Nucleic Acid Amplification Testing (NAAT) (Gen-Probe® Aptima®) for Chlamydia trachomatis from Ocular Samples. Ophthalmology 2014;122(2):244-247.

Zambelli, AM, Brothers KM, Hunt KM, Romanowski EG, Nau AC, Dhaliwal DK, and Shanks RS. Diffusion of antimicrobials across silicone hydrogel contact lenses. Eye and Contact Lens 2015;41(5):277-280.

Kowalski RP, Melan MA, Karenchak LM, Mammen A. The comparison of validated PCR to culture isolation for detecting acanthamoeba from ocular samples. Eye and Contact Lens 2015;41(6):341-343.

Elam AR, Kowalski TA, Romanowski EG, Kowalski RP. The origin of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from blepharitis based on panton-valentine leucocidin and antibiotic susceptibility testing. Journal of Ocular Diseases and Therapeutics 2014;2:4-8.

Stella NA and Shanks RM. Cyclic-AMP inhibition of fimbriae and prodigiosin production by Serratia marcescens is strain-dependent. 2014; Archives in Microbiology 196(5)323-30PMID: 24619531.

Brothers KM, Nau AC, Romanowski EG, Shanks RM. Dexamethasone diffusion across contact lenses is inhibited by Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms in vitro. Cornea 2014; 33(10)1083-1087 PMID: 25090165.      

Butterworth MB, Zhang L, Liu X, Shanks R, Thibodeau PH. Modulation of the Epithelial Sodium Channel (ENaC) by Bacterial Metalloproteases and Protease Inhibitors. PLoS One. 2014; 9(6)e100313 PMID: 24963801.

Romanowski EG. Is there an anti-adenoviral drug on the horizon? Expert Rev. Ophthalmol. 2013;8(6):427–435.

Melan MA, Oakley GJ, Kowalski RP, Karenchak LM, Kant JA. Adaptation of a qualitative PCR assay to detect the presence of Acanthamoeba in ophthalmologic samples. J Mole Diagn 2013;14:674.

Kowalski RP, Romanowski EG, Shanks RM, Mah FS. Response to Carifi and Kopsachilis. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther 2013;29(4):381.

Kowalski RP. Perspective: Is Antibiotic Resistance a Problem in the Treatment of Ophthalmic Infections? Exp Rev Ophthalmol 2013:8(2):119-226.

Kowalski RP, Abdel Aziz S, Romanowski EG, Shanks RMQ, Raju LV. Development of a Practical Complete-Kill assay to Evaluate Anti-Acanthamoeba Drugs. JAMA Ophthalmol 2013;131(11):1459.

Kowalski RP, Margolis TP. Molecular diagnostics: Rigourous clinical validation requirements result in high reliability. EuroTimes 2013;18(5):29.

Stella NA, Fender JE, Lahr RM, Kalivoda EJ, and Shanks RM. The LysR transcription factor, HexS, is required for glucose inhibition of prodigiosin production by Serratia marcescens. Advances in Microbiol. 2012;2(4):511-517. DOI:10.4236/aim.2012.24065.

Shanks RM, Stella NA, Arena KE, Fender JE. Mutation of crp mediates Serratia marcescens serralysin and global secreted protein production. Res. Microbiol. 2013;164(1):38-45. PMID: 23072819.

Shanks RM, Lahr RM, Stella NA, Arena KE, Brothers KM, Kwak DH, Liu X, and Kalivoda EJ. A Serratia marcescens PigP Homolog Controls Prodigiosin Biosynthesis, Swarming Motility and Hemolysis and is Regulated by cAMP-CRP and HexS. PLoS One. 2013;8(3):357634 PMC3585978.

O’Hara J, Ambe L, Casella L, Townsend B, Pelletier M, Ernst R, Shanks RM, and Doi Y. Activity of vancomycin-containing regimens against colistin-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii clinical strains. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 2013; in press PMID: 23422916.

Kadouri DE, To K, Shanks RM, Doi Y. Predatory bacteria: a potential ally against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens. PLoS One. 2013;8(5):e63397.

Romanowski EG, Yates KA, O’Connor KE, Mah FS, Shanks RMQ, Kowalski RP. The evaluation of polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) as a disinfectant for adenovirus. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2013;131:495-498.

Shanks RM, Stella NA, Lahr RM, Wang S, Veverka TI, Kowalski RP, Liu X. Serratamolide is a Hemolytic Factor Produced by Serratia marcescens. PLoS One 2012;7(5):e36398. PubMed PMID: 22615766.

Fender JE, Bender, CM, Stella, NA, Lahr, RM, Kalivoda, EJ, and Shanks, RM. Serratia marcescens quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase activity mediates medium acidification and inhibition of prodigiosin production by glucose. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2012;78(17):6225-35. PMC3416624.

Kowalski RP, Romanowski EG, Shanks RMQ, Mah FS. The Comparison of Fluoroquinolones to Non-fluoroquinolone Antibacterial Agents for the Prevention of Endophthalmitis in a Rabbit Model. J Ocular Pharm Thera 2012;28:604-608.

Kowalski RP, Kowalski TA, Shanks RMQ, Romanowski EG, Karenchak LM, Mah FS. In Vitro Comparison of Combination- and Mono-therapy for the Empiric and Optimal Coverage of Bacterial Keratitis Based on Incidence of Infection. Cornea 2013;32:830-834.

Shanks RM, Dashiff A, Alster JS, and Kadouri DE. Isolation and Identification of a bacteriocin with antibacterial and antibiofilm activity from Citrobacter freundii. Archives in Microbiology 2012 July;194(7):575-587. PubMed PMID: 22290290.

O'Toole GA, Wathier M, Zegans ME, Shanks RMQ, Kowalski RP, Grinstaff MW. Diphosphonium ionic liquids as broad spectrum antimicrobial agents and their in vivo use to prevent ocular infections. Cornea 2012;31(7):810-816.

Rarey K, Shanks RMQ, Romanowski EG, Mah FS, Gondaira F, Kowalski RP. Staphylococcus aureus from endophthalmitis are hospital-acquired based on PVL and antibiotic susceptibility testing. J Ocular Pharm Thera 2012;28(1):12-16.

Yoder JS, Verani J, Heidman N, Kowalski RP (17 author). Cases of Acanthamoeba keratitis diagnosed following a multistate Acanthamoeba keratitis outbreak. 2007-2009. Ophthalmic Epidemiology 2012;19(4):221-225.

Eisley KM, Miller KV, Shanks RMQ, Lahr RM, Lathrop KL, Kowalski RP, Noecker RJ. Recurrent enterococcal endophthalmitis seeded by an intraocular lens biofilm. J Cat Refrac Surgery 2011;37(7):1355-1359.

Wingard JB, Romanowski EG, Kowalski RP, Ling Y, Bilonick RA, Shanks RMQ. A novel cell-associated protection assay (CAPA) demonstrates the ability of certain antibiotics to protect ocular surface cell lines from subsequent clinical Staphylococcus aureus challenge. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 2011;55(8):3788-3794.

Thompson PP, Kowalski RP. A 13 Year Retrospective Review of PCR Testing for Infectious Agents from Ocular Samples. Ophthalmology 2011;118(7):1449-1453.

Hillenbrand ME, Thompson PP, Shanks RMQ, Kowalski RP. Validation of PCR for the detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from corneal samples. Int J Ophthalmol 2011;4(3):262-268.

Kalivoda EJ, Horzempa J, Stella NA, Sadaf A, Kowalski RP, Nau GJ, Shanks RMQ. New vector tools with a hygromycin resistance marker for use with opportunistic pathogens. Molecular Biotechnology 2011;48(1):7-14.

Eller AW, Dhaliwal DK, Kowalski RP. Late Capsular Block Syndrome Associated with Propionibacterium acnes. Arch Ophthalmol 2011;129(2):246-247.

Chronister DR, Kowalski RP, Mah FS, Thompson PP. An independent in vitro comparison of povidone-iodine and sterilid. J Ocular Pharm Thera 2010;26(3):277-80.

Kowalski RP, Thompson PP, Cronin T. Cell Culture Isolation Can Miss the Laboratory Diagnosis of HSV Ocular Infection. Int J Ophthalmol 2010:3(2):164-167.

Wu EC, Kowalski RP, Romanowski EG, Mah FS, Gordon YJ, Shanks RMQ. Azasite® Inhibits Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus Biofilm Formation in vitro. Journal of Ocular Pharmacy and Therapeutics. 2010 Dec;26(6):557-62.

Kowalski RP, Romanowski EG, Mah FS, Shanks RMQ, Gordon YJ. Topical Levofloxacin 1.5% overcomes in vitro resistance in rabbit keratits models. Acta Ophthalmologica. 88(4):e120-5, 2010 Jun.

Hozempa J, O'Dee DM, Shanks RM, Nau GJ. Francisella tularensis DeltapyrF mutants show that replication in nonmacrophages is sufficient for pathogenesis in vivo. Infection and Immunity. 78(6):2607-19, 2010 Jun.

Kalvioda EJ, Stella NA, Aston MA, Fender JE, Thompson PP, Kowalski RP, Shanks RM. Cyclic AMP negatively regulates prodigiosin production by Serratia marcescens. Research in Microbiology. 161(2):158-67, 2010 Mar.

Horzempa J, Shanks RM, Brown MJ, Russo BC, O'Dee DM, Nau GJ. Utilization of an unstable plasmid and the I-Scel endonuclease to generate routine markerless deletion mutants in Francisella tularensis. Journal of Microbiological Methods. 80(1):106-8, 2010 Jan.

Kowalski RP. How Ocular Antibiotics Kill? Topics in Ocular Antiinfectives 2009;6:1-7.

Romanowski EG, Yates KA, Gordon YJ. The in vitro and in vivo evaluation of ddC as a topical antiviral for ocular adenovirus infections. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science. 50(11):5295-9, 2009 Nov.

Shanks RM, Kadouri DE, MacEachran DP, O'Toole GA. New yeast recombineering tools for bacteria. Plasmid. 62(2):88-97, 2009 Sep.

Chung JL, Seo KY, Yong DE, Mah FS, Kim EK, Kim JK. Antibiotic Susceptibility of conjunctival bacterial isolates from refractive surgery patients. Ophthalmology. 116(6):1067-74, 2009 Jun.

Gordon YJ, Romanowski EG, Shanks RM, Yates KA, Hinsley H, Pereira HA. CAP37-derived antimicrobial peptides have in vitro antiviral activity against adenovirus and herpes simplex virus type 1. Current Eye Research. 34(3):241-9, 2009 Mar.

Siamak NM, Kowalski RP, Thompson PP, Romanowski EG, Shanks RM, Gordon YJ. RPS Adeno Detector. Ophthalmology. 116(3):591-591, e1, 2009 Mar.

Romanowski EG, Gordon YJ. Update on antiviral treatment for adenoviral ocular infections. Am J Ophthalmol. 2008:146:635-367.

Thompson PP, Kowalski RP, Shanks RMQ, Gordon YJ. Validation of real-time PCR for laboratory diagnosis of Acanthamoeba keratitis. J Clin Microbiol. 2008;46:3232-3236.

Romanowski EG, Mah FS, Kowalski RP, Yates KA, Gordon YJ. Benzalkonium chloride enhances the antibacterial efficacy of gatifloxacin in an experimental rabbit keratitis model. J Oc Pharm Ther. 2008;24:380-384.

Kalivoda EJ, Stella NA, O’Dee DM, Nau GJ, Shanks RM. The cAMP-dependent catabolite repression system of Serratia marcescens mediates biofilm formation through regulation of type 1 fimbriae. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008;74:3461-3470.

Kowalski RP, Romanowski EG, Mah FS, Sasaki H, Fukuda M, Gordon YJ. A comparison of moxifloxacin and levofloxacin topical prophylaxis in a fluoroquinolone-resistant Staphylococcus aureus rabbit model. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2008;52(3):211-216.

Shanks RM, Meehl M, Brothers KM, Martinez RM, Donegan NP, Graber ML, Cheung AL, O’Toole GA. Genetic evidence for an alternative citrate-dependent biofilm formation pathway of Staphylococcus aureus dependent on fibronectin binding proteins and the GraRS two-component regulatory system. Infection and Immunity. 2008;76:2469-2477.

Kowalski RP, Romanowski EG, Mah FS, Yates KA, Gordon YJ. Topical 0.5% moxifloxacin prevents endophthalmitis in an intravitreal injection rabbit model. J Oc Pharm Ther. 2008;24:1-7.

Stella NA, Kalivoda EJ, O’Dee DM, Nau GJ, Shanks RM. Catabolite repression control of flagellum production by Serratia marcescens. Res. Microbiol. 2008;159:562-568.

Medina AA, Shanks RM, Kadouri DE. Development of a novel system for isolating genes involved in predator-prey interactions using host independent derivatives of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109J.  BMC Microbiology 2008;8:33.

Horzempa J, Carlson Jr. PE, O’Dee DM, Shanks RM, Nau GJ. Global transcriptional response to mammalian temperature provides new insight into Francisella tularensis pathogenesis. BMC Microbiology 2008;8:172.

O'Brien T, Arshinoff SA, Mah FS. Perspectives on antibiotics for postoperative endophthalmitis prophylaxis: potential role of moxifloxacin.  J Cataract Refract Surg. 2007;33:1790-1800.

Mah FS. Evaluation of the effects of olopatadine ophthalmic solution, 0.2% on the ocular surface of patients with allergic conjunctivitis and dry eye. Curr Med Res Opin. 2007 Dec 31.

Abelson MB, Spangler DL, Epstein AB, Mah FS, Crampton HJ. Efficacy of once-daily olopatadine 0.2% ophthalmic solution compared to twice-daily olopatadine 0.1% ophthalmic solution for the treatment of ocular itching induced by conjunctival allergen challenge. Curr Eye Res. 2007;32:1017-1122.

Nwanegbo EC, Romanowski EG, Gordon YJ, Gambotto A. Efficacy of topical immunoglobulins (IG) against experimental adenoviral ocular infection. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007;48:4171-4176.

Rhee SS, Mah FS. Comparison of tobramycin 0.3%/dexamethasone 0.1% and tobramycin 0.3%/loteprednol 0.5% in the management of blepharo-keratoconjunctivitis. Advances in Therapy. 2007;24:60-67.

Mah FS, Romanowski EG, Kowalski RP, Yates KA, Gordon YJ. Zymar (Gatifloxacin 0.3%) demonstrates excellent gram-negative activity against Serratia marcescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a New Zealand white rabbit keratitis model. Cornea. 2007;26:585-588.

Mah FS, Rosenwasser LJ, Townsend WD, Greiner JV, Bensch G. Efficacy and comfort of olopatadine 0.2% versus epinastine 0.05% ophthalmic solution for treating itching and redness induced by conjunctival allergen challenge. Curr Med Res Opin. 2007 May 18.

Shanks RM, Stella NA, Kalivoda EJ, O’Dee D, Nau GJ. A Serratia marcescens OxyR homolog mediates surface attachment and biofilm formation.  J. Bacteriol 2007;189:7262-7272.

Kowalski RP, Thompson PP, Kinchington PR, Gordon YJ. Evaluation of the SmartCycler II system for real-time detection of viruses and Chlamydia from ocular specimens. Arch Ophthalmol. 2006 Aug;124(8):1135-9.

Romanowski EG, Yates KA, Teuchner B, Nagl M, Irschick EU, Gordon YJ. N-chlorotaurine is an effective antiviral agent against adenovirus in vitro and in the Ad5/NZW rabbit ocular model. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006 May;47(5):2021-6.

Mah FS, Romanowski EG, Dhaliwal DK, Yates KA, Gordon YJ. Role of topical fluoroquinolones on the pathogenesis of diffuse lamellar keratitis in experimental in vivo studies. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2006 Feb;32(2):264-8.

Harvey SA, Romanowski EG, Yates KA, Gordon YJ. Adenovirus-directed ocular innate immunity: the role of conjunctival defensin-like chemokines (IP-10, I-TAC) and phagocytic human defensin-alpha. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005 Oct;46(10):3657-65.

Kowalski RP, Romanowski EG, Mah FS, Yates KA, Gordon YJ. Intracameral Vigamox (moxifloxacin 0.5%) is non-toxic and effective in preventing endophthalmitis in a rabbit model. Am J Ophthalmol. 2005 Sep;140(3):497-504.

Gordon YJ, Romanowski EG, McDermott AM. A review of antimicrobial peptides and their therapeutic potential as anti-infective drugs. Curr Eye Res. 2005 Jul;30(7):505-15. Review.

Kowalski RP, Yates KA, Romanowski EG, Karenchak LM, Mah FS, Gordon YJ. An ophthalmologist's guide to understanding antibiotic susceptibility and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) data. Ophthalmology. 2005 Nov;112(11):1987.

Mah FS, Romanowski EG, Dhaliwal DK, Yates KA, Gordon YJ. The role of topical fluoroquinolones on the pathogenesis of diffuse lamellar keratitis (DLK) in experimental in vivo studies. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2005.

Harvey SAK, Romanowski EG, Yates KA, Gordon YJ. Ocular innate immunity protects against certain adenoviral infections via conjunctival defensin-like chemokines (IP-10, I-TAC) and phagocytic human defensin alpha. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2005;46:3657-3665.

Kowalski RP, Romanowski EG, Mah FS, Yates KA, Gordon YJ. Intracameral Vigamox® (0.5% moxifloxacin) is non-toxic and effective in preventing endophthalmitis in a rabbit model. Am J Ophthalmol. 2005;140:497-504.

Kowalski RP. Dhaliwal DK. Ocular bacterial infections: current and future treatment options. Expert Review of Antiinfective Therapy. 2005;3:131-139.

Gordon YJ, Huang LC, Romanowski EG, Yates KA, Proske RJ, McDermott AM. Human cathelicidin (LL-37), a multi-functional peptide, is expressed by ocular surface epithelia and has potent antibacterial and antiviral activity. Cur Eye Res. 2005;30:385-394.

Romanowski EG, Mah FS, Yates KA, Kowalski RP, Gordon YJ. The successful treatment of gatifloxacin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus keratitis with Zymar® (Gatifloxacin 0.3%) in a NZW Rabbit Model. Am J Ophthalmol. 2005;139:867-877.

Kinchington PR, Romanowski EG, Gordon YJ. Prospects for antivirals to adenoviruses. J. Antimicrob Chemother. 2005;55:424-429.

Romanowski EG, Pless P, Yates KA, Gordon YJ. Topical cyclosporine A inhibits subepithelial immune infiltrates but also promotes viral shedding in experimental adenovirus models. Cornea. 2005;24:86-91.

Romanowski EG, Bartels SP, Vogel R, Wetherall NT, Hodges-Savola C, Kowalski RP, Yates KA, Kinchington PR, Gordon YJ. Feasibility of an antiviral clinical trial requiring cross-country shipment of conjunctival adenovirus cultures and recovery of infectious virus. Cur Eye Res. 2004;29:195-199.

Rhee MK, Kowalski RP, Romanowski EG, Mah FS, Ritterband DC, Gordon YJ. A laboratory evaluation of antibiotic therapy for ciprofloxacin-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Am J Ophthalmol. 2004;138:226-230.

Kowalski RP, Romanowski EG, Mah FS, Yates KA, Gordon YJ. Topical prophylaxis with moxifloxacin prevents endophthalmitis in a rabbit model. Am J Ophthalmol. 2004;138:33-37.

Mah FS. Fourth-generation fluoroquinolones: new topical agents in the war on ocular bacterial infections. Current Opinion in Ophthalmology. 2004;15:316-320.

Kowalski RP, Karenchak LM, Romanowski EG. Infectious Disease: Changing antibiotic susceptibility. In: Foulks GN Gardler RG, ed. Ophthalmology Clinics of North America, Cornea and External Disease. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company; 2003:1-9.

Mah FS. New antibiotics for bacterial infections. In: Foulks GN Gardler RG, ed. Ophthalmology Clinics of North America. 2003:11-27.

Kowalski RP, Dhaliwal DK, Karenchak LM, Romanowski EG, Mah FS, Ritterband DC, Gordon YJ. Gatifloxacin and moxifloxacin: An in vitro susceptibility comparison to levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin using bacterial keratitis isolates. Am J Ophthalmol. 2003;136:500-505.

Gordon YJ, Yates KA, Mah FS, Romanowski EG. The Effects of Xalatan® On the recovery of ocular HSV-1 in the induced reactivation & spontaneous shedding rabbit models. J Oc Pharm Ther. 2003;19:233-245.

Keverline MR, Kowalski RP, Dhaliwal DK. In vitro comparison of ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and povidone-iodine for surgical prophylaxis. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2002;28:915-91.

Kowalski RP, Karenchak LM, Shah C, Gordon JS. ELVIS: a new 24-hour culture test for detecting herpes simplex virus from ocular samples. Arch Ophthalmol. 2002;120:960-962.

Mather R, Karenchak LM, Romanowski EG, Kowalski RP. 4th Generation fluoroquinolones: New weapons in the arsenal of ophthalmic antibiotics. Am J Ophthalmol. 2002;133:463-466.

Romanowski EG, Yates KA, Gordon YJ. Topical corticosteroids of limited potency promote adenovirus replication in the Ad5/NZW rabbit ocular model. Cornea. 2002;21:289-291.

Romanowski EG, Yates KA, Gordon YJ. Antiviral prophylaxis with twice daily topical cidofovir protects against challenge in the adenovirus type 5/New Zealand rabbit ocular model. Antiviral Res. 2001;52:275-280.

Kowalski RP, Sundar-Raj CV, Romanowski EG, Gordon YJ. The disinfection of contact lenses contaminated with adenovirus. Am J Ophthalmol. 2001;132:777-779.

Kowalski RP, Pandya AN, Karenchak LM, Romanowski EG, Husted RC, Ritterband DC, Shah MK, Gordon YJ. An in vitro resistance study of levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin using keratitis isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Ophthalmol. 2001;108:1826-1829.

Dhaliwal DK, Romanowski EG, Yates KA, Hu D, Mah F, Fish DN, Gordon YJ. Valacyclovir inhibits recovery of ocular HSV-1 following experimental reactivation by LASIK. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2001;27:1288-1293.

Romanowski EG, Yates KA, Gordon YJ. Short term treatment with a potent topical corticosteroid of an acute ocular adenoviral infection in the New Zealand white rabbit. Cornea. 2001;20:657-660.

Romanowski EG, Gordon YJ, Araullo-Cruz T, Yates KA, Kinchington PR. The antiviral resistance and replication of cidofovir-resistant adenovirus variants in the New Zealand white rabbit ocular model. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2001;42:1812-1815.

Kowalski RP, Romanowski EG, Yates KA, Gordon YJ. Lomefloxacin is an effective treatment for experimental bacterial keratitis. Cornea. 2001;20:306-308.

Dhaliwal DK, Romanowski EG, Yates KA, Hu D, Goldstein M, Gordon YJ. Experimental laser assisted in-situ keratomileusis induces the reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus. Am J Ophthalmol. 2001;131:506-507.

Gordon YJ. Vancomycin prophylaxis and emerging resistance: are ophthalmologists the villains? The heroes?. Am J Ophthalmol. 2001;131:371-376.

Romanowski EG, Gordon YJ. Effects of topical diclofenac or ketorolac on the inhibitory activity of cidofovir in the Ad5/NZW rabbit model. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2001;42:158-162.

Gordon YJ. The evolution of antiviral therapy for external ocular viral infections over twenty-five years. Cornea.2000;19:673-680.

Romanowski EG, Gordon YJ. Efficacy of topical cidofovir on multiple adenoviral serotypes in the New Zealand rabbit ocular model. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2000;41:460-463.

Eller AW, Friberg TR, Mah F. Migration of silicone oil into the brain: a complication of intraocular silicone oil for retinal tamponade. Am J Ophthalmol.. 2000;129:685-688.

Dhaliwal DK, Romanowski EG, Yates KA, Barnhorst DA, Goldstein M, Deeter R, Fish DN, Gordon YJ. Valacyclovir inhibits recovery of ocular HSV-1 following experimental reactivation by excimer laser keratectomy. Cornea. 1999;18:693-699.

Romanowski EG, Barnhorst DA, Kowalski RP, Gordon YJ. The survival of herpes simplex virus in multidose office ophthalmic solutions. Am J Ophthalmol. 1999;128:239-240.

Kowalski RP, Karenchak LM, Romanowski EG, Gordon YJ, Community Ophthalmologists of Pittsburgh, PA. The evaluation of the shell vial technique for the detection of ocular adenovirus. Ophthalmol. 1999;106:1324-1327.

Romanowski EG, Bartels SP, Gordon YJ. Comparative antiviral efficacies of cidofovir, trifluridine, and acyclovir in the HSV-1 rabbit keratitis model. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1999;40:378-384.

Goldstein MH, Kowalski RP, Gordon YJ. Emerging fluoroquinolone resistance in bacterial keratitis: a 5-year review. Ophthalmol. 1999;106:1313-1318.

Kowalski RP, Romanowski EG, Waikom B, Gordon YJ. The survival of adenovirus in multidose bottles of topical fluorescein. Am J Ophthalmol. 1998;126:835-836.

Gordon YJ, Araullo-Cruz T, Romanowski EG. The effects of topical NSAIDS on adenoviral replication. Arch Ophthalmol. 1998;116:900-905.

Dhaliwal DK, Barnhorst DA, Romanowski E, Rehkopf PG, Gordon YJ. Efficient reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus type 1 by excimer laser keratectomy in the experimental rabbit ocular model. Am J Ophthalmol. 1998;125:488-492.

Romanowski EG, Araullo-Cruz T, Gordon YJ. Multiple adenoviral serotypes demonstrate host range extension in the New Zealand rabbit ocular model. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1998;39:532-536.

Kowalski RP, Karenchak LM, Gordon YJ. Comparison of ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin using human corneal susceptibility levels. Cornea. 1998;17:282-7.

Kowalski RP. Karenchak LM. Warren BB. Eller AW. Time-kill profiles of Enterococcus to antibiotics used for intravitreal therapy. Ophthal Surg Lasers. 1998;29:295-299.

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